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  • Open access
  • 129 Reads
Disaster Risks and Community Response: A Case Study from Ilam, Nepal

A field study was conducted in six Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Ilam district to identify common disasters linked with climate change and people’s response mechanisms to those disasters in farming communities. Altogether 300 randomly selected households facing different disaster problems were interviewed using structured and semi-structured questionnaire, which was supplemented by direct observation, time line analysis, key informant interview and focus group discussion. In addition, secondary data was collected from District Agriculture Development Office (DADO), Ilam, Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS) Ilam. Farmers’ perceptions and reviewed literature revealed that flood, landslide, drought, insect pests, hailstorm, and fire comprise major disaster risk, and they have been affecting agriculture, livelihood, physical infrastructure, and properties for years. It was found that different types of loss such as, landslides has following risks and impacts: wash away of land (45% families) and crops (90%), property loss (10%), loss of physical resources (50%), effects on water resources (69%), loss of livestock (5%), forest degradation (72%) and loss of human live (3%), risks and impacts of flood, drought and fire have also been presented in this study. It was also unraveled that local communities adopt different mitigation measures for different disasters including afforestation, check dam construction, awareness creation, contour farming, relocation, shed reconstruction, construction of plastic ponds, and conservation of local varieties (different frequencies for different measures). Social network has played important role in mitigating disaster risks. People get help from government (38% families) and non-government (50% families) organizations, friends (22%), neighbors (44%) and relatives (20%) in the forms of loan (18%), helping hands or physical support (77%), information (62%) and basic need materials (48%) to manage or respond disaster risks. The paper suggests that local mitigation measures need to be supplemented by more sustainable solutions to make the efforts sustainable, which requires local level integrated planning and coordinated efforts.

  • Open access
  • 122 Reads
Assessment of Occupational Stress Index and Lipid Profile among Professional Drivers in Ismailia City, Egypt

Background: Driving is a stressful job. Professional drivers are high risk group for occupational stress. Occupational stress has been associated with abnormal levels of lipids. However, many studies could not find any association. Aim and Objectives: The study aimed at contributing to improving the professional drivers' health through assessing occupational stress, lipid profile and their association. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Suez Canal Authority in Ismailia City, Egypt, including 131 professional drivers. A structured interview questionnaire was performed to assess occupational stress index (OSI) and cardiovascular risk factors. Lipid profile in form of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were assessed. Results: The total OSI score was 79.98 ± 6.14. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 79.4%, 51.9% of drivers had hypercholesterolemia, 37.4% had hypertriglyceridemia, 50.4% had high level of LDL-C, and 45% had low level of HDL-C. The total OSI score and OSI aspects did not have statistically significant relationship with dyslipidemia. The high demand aspect score of OSI had statistically significant relationship with hypercholesterolemia. The conflict aspect had statistically significant relationship with high LDL-C. The noxious exposure and conflict aspects of OSI had weak positive significant correlations with cholesterol level (r=0.163, 0.162 respectively). A weak positive significant correlation (r=0.149) was found between noxious exposure aspect score and LDL-C level. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess independent risk factors of dyslipidemia. The model included aspects of OSI, total OSI score, driving hours a day, smoking status, passive smoking, body mass index (BMI) and dietary habits. It identified conflict aspect of OSI, driving hours a day, and BMI as predictors of dyslipidemia. Conclusion: Professional drivers are exposed to occupational stress. Dyslipidemia is prevalent among professional drivers. Total OSI score doesn't have statistically significant relationship with dyslipidemia. However, certain aspects of OSI have significant relationship with abnormal lipid profile.

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