The assessment of non-carcinogenic risk for the population health from chemicals coming with exhaust gases of motor transport citywide and in certain districts of the city of Kazan was performed. The calculation was carried out according to the results of the laboratory and instrumental tests carried out by FBHI “Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Republic of Tatarstan” for the period from 2010 to 2016. The general toxic effect on the organs of the respiratory system from (42.5 to 62.0%) in the city and districts is due to exposure to the total fraction of TSP, РМ 10 and РМ 2,5. Population risk of the total TSP impact made 1244 cases of additional deaths per year among the city population, apart from external causes. In Vakhitovsky and Sovetsky districts, this index for the whole population made 86 and 281 per year correspondingly. The absence of data on the age-specific death rate in the districts did not allow calculating the given indices for certain age groups. Damage associated with total morbidity of asthma among the cumulative city population caused by the exposure to РМ10 made 486 cases in adults and 67 cases in children per year. Damage from the exposure to РМ2.5 made 332 additional deaths from all causes (14.6%); 1727 from cardiovascular diseases (4.5%); 18 - from respiratory diseases (6.0%). Currently, the assessment of mortality and diseases caused by the air pollution is the starting point for development or correction of regulatory actions in the field of the environmental and the population health protection at the regional levels.
The analysis of the such chemicalsas cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) intake with the diet of children aged 3-6 years oldfrom the city of Kazan for periods (2007-2010 and 2011-2014) was carried out. The study of actual child nutrition was performed by questionnaire andtime-weight methods. The calculation of daily doses was made with the account of regional exposure factors at the 95thperc level. The non-carcinogenic risk from the exposure to methylmercury with basic food groupsat the level of the 95th perc made 3.89 and 3.33 for both periods, 10.67– for arsenic in the first period, being unacceptable (HQ >1). In 2007-2010, the central nervous system (CNS), the hormone system (HS), the immune system (IS), and the development (HI = 15.75, 12.87, 11.72 and 4.03) were exposed to the highest toxic effect. An in 2011-2014, the CNS and the development (HI = 4.02 and 3.98) were. The risk of developing non-carcinogeni ceffects for these systems (64% - 91 %) was mainly due to contamination of foods with As for the first period, and– to the intake of Pb (46 % - 57%) for the second period. The value of the total individual carcinogenic risk (ICRCd, Pb, As), for the second period (1.69Е-05) corresponds to maximum allowable level. In 2007-2010, the total ICRmade 2.45Е-04, which is an unacceptable level for the population. The major contribution to the total ICR due to the intake of contaminated foods was made by As –92.55 % in the first period, and by Cd – 79.93 % in the second period.
The peculiarities of the child body (the amount of chemicals ingested per kilogram of the body weight is higher in children than in adults), determine the potential risk and are responsible for high vulnerability on exposure to chemicals and development of adverse effects.